Towards a didactical framework of co-creation
In the TPACK framework, what teachers need to know is characterized by three broad knowledge bases – technology, pedagogy, and content – and the interactions between and among these knowledge bases. In this approach, technology in teaching is characterized as something well beyond isolated knowledge of specific hardware or software. Rather, technology that is introduced into teaching contexts “causes the representation of new concepts and requires developing a sensitivity to the dynamic, transactional relationship between all three components” (Koehler & Mishra, 2005a, p. 134). The TPACK-model was developed by Mishra and Koehler (2006) and is being used by many researchers and instructional designers as a model with regards to educational settings where teachers want to effectively teach while using technology. It is therefore of utmost importance to include the TPACK-model in this conceptual framework since within this approach, technology is needed to successfully co-create with different stakeholders.
Technological Knowledge (TK)
TK includes an understanding of how to use computer software and hardware, presentation tools such as document presenters and beamers, and other technologies used in educational contexts. Most importantly, TK covers the ability to adapt to and learn new technologies.
Technology knowledge (TK) is always in a state of flux—more so than the other two core knowledge domains in the TPACK framework (pedagogy and content). Thus, defining it is notoriously difficult. Any definition of technology knowledge is in danger of soon becoming outdated. That said, certain ways of thinking about and working with technology can apply to all technology tools and resources.
Acquiring TK in this manner enables a person to accomplish a variety of different tasks using information technology and to develop different ways of accomplishing a given task. This conceptualization of TK does not posit an “end state,” but rather sees it developmentally, as evolving over a lifetime of generative, open-ended interaction with technology (Mishra, P. and Koehler, M.J., 2006).
Content Knowledge (CK)
Content knowledge (CK) is teachers’ knowledge about the subject matter to be learned or taught. Knowledge of content is of critical importance for teachers. As Shulman (1986) noted, this knowledge would include knowledge of concepts, theories, ideas, organizational frameworks, knowledge of evidence and proof, as well as established practices and approaches towards developing such knowledge. Knowledge and the nature of inquiry differ greatly between fields, and teachers should understand the deeper knowledge fundamentals of the disciplines in which they teach. In the case of science, for example, this would include knowledge of scientific facts and theories, the scientific method, and evidence-based reasoning. In the case of art appreciation, such knowledge would include knowledge of art history, famous paintings, sculptures, artists and their historical contexts, as well as knowledge of aesthetic and psychological theories for evaluating art (Mishra, P. and Koehler, M.J., 2006).
Pedagogical Knowledge (PK)
Pedagogical knowledge (PK) is teachers’ deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning. They encompass, among other things, overall educational purposes, values, and aims. This generic form of knowledge applies to understanding how students learn, general classroom management skills, lesson planning, and student assessment. It includes knowledge about techniques or methods used in the classroom; the nature of the target audience; and strategies for evaluating student understanding. A teacher with deep pedagogical knowledge understands how students construct knowledge and acquire skills and how they develop habits of mind and positive dispositions toward learning. As such, pedagogical knowledge requires an understanding of cognitive, social, and developmental theories of learning and how they apply to students in the classroom (Mishra, P. and Koehler, M.J., 2006).
Technological Content Knowledge (TCK)
Technology and content knowledge have a deep historical relationship. Progress in fields as diverse as medicine, history, archaeology, and physics have coincided with the development of new technologies that afford the representation and manipulation of data in new and fruitful ways.
TCK is an understanding of the manner in which technology and content influence and constrain one another. Teachers need to master more than the subject matter they teach; they must also have a deep understanding of the manner in which the subject matter (or the kinds of representations that can be constructed) can be changed by the application of particular technologies. Teachers need to understand which specific technologies are best suited for addressing subject-matter learning in their domains and how the content dictates or perhaps even changes the technology—or vice versa (Mishra, P. and Koehler, M.J., 2006).
Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)
PCK is consistent with and similar to Shulman’s idea of knowledge of pedagogy that is
applicable to the teaching of specific content. Central to Shulman’s conceptualization of PCK is the notion of the transformation of the subject matter for teaching. Specifically, according to Shulman (1986), this transformation occurs as the teacher interprets the subject matter, finds multiple ways to represent it, and adapts and tailors the instructional materials to alternative conceptions and students’ prior knowledge.
PCK covers the core business of teaching, learning, curriculum, assessment and reporting, such as the conditions that promote learning and the links among curriculum, assessment, and pedagogy. An awareness of common misconceptions and ways of looking at them, the importance of forging connections among different content-based ideas, students’ prior knowledge, alternative teaching strategies, and the flexibility that comes from exploring alternative ways of looking at the same idea or problem are all essential for effective teaching (Mishra, P. and Koehler, M.J., 2006).
Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK)
TPK is an understanding of how teaching and learning can change when particular technologies are used in particular ways. This includes knowing the pedagogical affordances and constraints of a range of technological tools as they relate to disciplinarily and developmentally appropriate pedagogical designs and strategies. To build TPK, a deeper understanding of the constraints and affordances of technologies and the disciplinary contexts within which they function is needed.
An understanding of the affordances of technology and how they can be leveraged differently according to changes in context and purposes is an important part of understanding TPK.
TPK requires a forward-looking, creative, and open-minded seeking of technology use, not for its own sake but for the sake of advancing student learning and understanding (Mishra, P. and Koehler, M.J., 2006).
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)
TPACK “underlying truly meaningful and deeply skilled teaching with technology, TPACK is different from knowledge of all three concepts individually. Instead, TPACK is the basis of effective teaching with technology, requiring an understanding of the representation of concepts using technologies; pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content; knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress some of the problems that students face; knowledge of students’ prior knowledge and theories of epistemology; and knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge to develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones” (Koehler & Mishra, 2009).
The TPACK framework offers several possibilities for promoting research in teacher education, teacher professional development, and teachers’ use of technology. It offers options for looking at a complex phenomenon like technology integration in ways that are now amenable to analysis and development. Moreover, it allows teachers, researchers, and teacher educators to move beyond oversimplified approaches that treat technology as an “add-on” instead to focus again, and in a more ecological way, upon the connections among technology, content, and pedagogy as they play out in classroom contexts.